The International Labour Organization and UNICEF warn that 9 million additional children are at risk due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The number of children subject to child labour has risen to 160 million worldwide – an increase of 8.4 million children in the last four years – with millions more at risk due to the impacts of COVID-19, according to a new report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and UNICEF.
Child Labour Global estimates 2020, trends and the road forward – released ahead of World Day Against Child Labour on 12th June – warns that progress to end child labour has stalled for the first time in 20 years, reversing the previous downward trend that saw child labour fall by 94 million between 2000 and 2016.
The report points to a significant rise in children aged 5 to 11 years in child labour, who now account for just over half of the total global figure. In addition, the number of children aged 5 to 17 years in hazardous work – defined as work that is likely to harm their health, safety, or morals – has risen by 6.5 million to 79 million since 2016.
“The new estimates are a wake-up call. We cannot stand by while a new generation of children is put at risk,” said ILO Director-General Guy Ryder. “Inclusive social protection allows families to keep their children in school even in the face of economic hardship.
Increased investment in rural development and decent work in agriculture is essential. We are at a pivotal moment, and much depends on how we respond. This is a time for renewed commitment and energy, to turn the corner and break the cycle of poverty and child labour.”
In sub-Saharan Africa, population growth, recurrent crises, extreme poverty, and inadequate social protection measures have led to an additional 16.6 million children in child labour over the past four years.
Even in regions with some headway since 2016, such as Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, COVID-19 is endangering that progress.
The report also warns that globally, 9 million additional children are at risk of being pushed into child labour by the end of 2022 due to the pandemic. A simulation model shows this number could rise to 46 million if they don’t have access to critical social protection coverage.
Additional economic shocks and school closures caused by COVID-19 mean that children already in child labour may be working longer hours or under worsening conditions. In addition, many more may be forced into the worst forms of child labour due to the job and income losses among vulnerable families.
“We are losing ground in the fight against child labour, and the last year has not made that fight any easier,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore.
“Now, well into the second year of global lockdowns, school closures, economic disruptions, and shrinking national budgets, families are forced to make heart-breaking choices. We urge governments and international development banks to prioritize investments in programs that can get children out of the workforce and back into school, and in social protection programs that can help families avoid making this choice in the first place.”
Other key findings in the report say the agriculture sector accounts for 70 percent of children in child labour (112 million), followed by 20 percent in services (31.4 million) and 10 percent in the industry (16.5 million).
Nearly 28 percent of children aged 5 to 11 years and 35 percent of children aged 12 to 14 years in child labour are out of school.
Child labour is more prevalent among boys than girls at every age. However, when household chores performed for at least 21 hours per week are considered, the gender gap in child labour narrows.
The prevalence of child labour in rural areas (14 percent) is three times higher than in urban areas (5 percent).
Children in child labour are at risk of physical and mental harm. In addition, child labour compromises children’s education, restricts their rights and limits their future opportunities, and leads to vicious inter-generational poverty and child labour cycles.
To reverse the upward trend in child labour, the ILO and UNICEF are calling for:
Adequate social protection for all, including universal child benefits and increased spending on quality education, and getting all children back into school, including children out of school before COVID-19.
ILO and UNICEF also call for the promotion of decent work for adults, so families don’t have to resort to children helping to generate family income and an end to harmful gender norms and discrimination that influence child labour.
The two international organizations demand an investment in child protection systems, agricultural development, rural public services, infrastructure, and livelihoods.
As part of the International Year for the Elimination of Child Labour, the global partnership Alliance 8.7, of which UNICEF and ILO are partners, is encouraging member States, business, trade unions, civil society, and regional and international organizations to redouble their efforts in the global fight against child labour by making concrete action pledges.